From Clover to computer.
Towards programmed anaesthesia?

Mapleson WW.
Anaesthesia. 1979 Feb;34(2):163-72


The control of depth of anaesthesia has been viewed as a control-system problem the solution of which can involve both feedback and feedforward techniques. The nature of the problem in Clover's day and the solutions he found have been examined. A similar analysis has been made in respect of the modern anaesthetist. Finally, the way in which computers may aid the anaesthetist in his task has been illustrated by reference to various attempts reported from around the world and, in particular, by describing the development in Cardiff of a system which should produce, in the brain of the patient, any tension of an inhaled anaesthetic which the anaesthetist chooses to specify.

William Morton
John Collins Warren
Surgical anaesthesia
Crawford Williamson Long
Anaesthesia/16th October 1846
The history of anaesthesia apparatus
Clover's "portable regulating ether inhaler"
William T.G. Morton and "The Great Moment"
First use of anaesthetics in different countries
Hinckley's oil painting "The First Operation Under Ether"

and further reading
Future Opioids
BLTC Research
Utopian Surgery?
The Good Drug Guide
The Abolitionist Project
The Hedonistic Imperative
The Reproductive Revolution
Critique of Huxley's Brave New World