Pain genes?: natural variation and transgenic mutants
Mogil JS, Yu L, Basbaum AI.
Department of Psychology,
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 61820, USA.
Annu Rev Neurosci. 2000;23:777-811
ABSTRACTLike many other complex biological phenomena, pain is starting to be studied at the level of the gene. Advances in molecular biological technology have allowed the cloning, mapping, and sequencing of genes, and also the ability to disrupt their function entirely (i.e. via transgenic knockouts). With these new tools at hand, pain researchers have begun in earnest the task of defining (a) which of the 70,000-150,000 mammalian genes are involved in the mediation of pain, and (b) which of the pain-relevant genes are polymorphic, contributing to both natural variation in responses and pathology. Although there are only a few known examples in which single gene mutations in humans are associated with pain conditions (e.g. an inherited form of migraine and congenital insensitivity to pain), it is likely that others will be identified. Concurrently, a variety of genes have been implicated in both the transmission and control of "pain" messages in animals. The present review summarizes current progress to these ends, focusing on both transgenic (gene-->behavior) and classical genetic (behavior-->gene) approaches in both humans and laboratory mice.Pain sensitivity
'The secularisation of pain'
Congenital indifference to pain
Anaesthesia in congenital insensitivity to pain
The Hedonistic Imperative
MDMA: Utopian Pharmacology
The Good Drug Guide
The Responsible Parent's Guide
To Healthy Mood Boosters For All The Family