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Alessandro Moreschi
(1858 - 1922)

picture of the last castrato
Alessandro Moreschi was the last castrato; and the only castrato whose voice is on record (from a gramophone recording of 1902). Prospective castrati were "loosened up" in a hot bath and dosed with opium and/or alcohol. Pressure was applied to the carotid artery to render the boy (ideally) insensible. The procedure was hazardous; and the anaesthesia woefully incomplete. Today such mutilation is normally condemned as barbarous; but it is practised routinely on juvenile non-human farm animals.

Utopian Surgery
The Good Drug Guide
Utopian Pharmacology
The Abolitionist Project
Refs and Further Reading
Anaesthesia and Anaesthetics
Critique of Aldous Huxley's Brave New World