Anesthesia in the llama
by
Riebold TW, Kaneps AJ, Schmotzer WB.
Veterinary Teaching Hospital,
College of Veterinary Medicine,
Oregon State University,
Corvallis 97331-4802.
Vet Surg. 1989 Sep-Oct;18(5):400-4


ABSTRACT

Anesthesia for llamas is similar to other domestic species, although adjustments in technique are required to allow for species variations. Xylazine (0.4-0.6 mg/kg) is well tolerated for sedation. The thiobarbiturates (8-10 mg/kg), ketamine (2.5-5.0 mg/kg), or combinations of guaifenesin and thiobarbiturates or guaifenesin and ketamine (to effect) can be used for induction of anesthesia. In juvenile or debilitated animals, anesthesia can be induced with halothane or isoflurane administered by mask. After tracheal intubation, anesthesia can be maintained with the inhalation agents, usually halothane or isoflurane. Supportive therapy and many anesthetic monitoring techniques used in domestic animals can be used in llamas. While under marginal planes of anesthesia, llamas can have more active physiologic responses to pain, including bradycardia and vasoconstriction, than domestic animals. Llamas are more prone to airway obstruction after tracheal extubation than domestic ruminants but otherwise recover as well from general anesthesia as domestic ruminants.
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Refs
and further reading

general-anaesthesia.com
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