Anesthesia in the llama
Riebold TW, Kaneps AJ, Schmotzer WB.
Veterinary Teaching Hospital,
College of Veterinary Medicine,
Oregon State University,
Corvallis 97331-4802.
Vet Surg. 1989 Sep-Oct;18(5):400-4


Anesthesia for llamas is similar to other domestic species, although adjustments in technique are required to allow for species variations. Xylazine (0.4-0.6 mg/kg) is well tolerated for sedation. The thiobarbiturates (8-10 mg/kg), ketamine (2.5-5.0 mg/kg), or combinations of guaifenesin and thiobarbiturates or guaifenesin and ketamine (to effect) can be used for induction of anesthesia. In juvenile or debilitated animals, anesthesia can be induced with halothane or isoflurane administered by mask. After tracheal intubation, anesthesia can be maintained with the inhalation agents, usually halothane or isoflurane. Supportive therapy and many anesthetic monitoring techniques used in domestic animals can be used in llamas. While under marginal planes of anesthesia, llamas can have more active physiologic responses to pain, including bradycardia and vasoconstriction, than domestic animals. Llamas are more prone to airway obstruction after tracheal extubation than domestic ruminants but otherwise recover as well from general anesthesia as domestic ruminants.
Nitrous oxide
Inhaled anaesthetics
Obstetric anaesthesia
Molecular mechanisms
Chloroform anaesthesia
A thalamocortical switch?
Anaesthesia and the spinal chord
History of anaesthesia apparatus
Consciousness, anaesthesia and anaesthetics
Anaesthesia: mutants in yeast, nematodes, fruit flies and mice

and further reading
Future Opioids
BLTC Research
Utopian Surgery?
The Good Drug Guide
The Abolitionist Project
The Hedonistic Imperative
The Reproductive Revolution
Critique of Huxley's Brave New World