200 years of nitrous oxide (laughing gas)
- and the end of an era?

Schwilden H, Schuttler J.
Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther. 2001 Oct;36(10):640


The history of nitrous oxide is more than 200 years old and its clinical use as anaesthetic is more than 150 years old. The symposium discussed the question whether nitrous oxide should maintain its traditional role as a component of the anaesthetic breathing gas in everdays anaesthetic procedure or whether there are indications not to continue the regular use of nitrous oxide. As a matter of fact the continued use of nitrous oxide will not change its clinical pharmacology and one may argue that every year of additional experience with this drug is likely to increase the safety of its application. However, one has steadily to judge the risks of this drug against its alternatives and these have changed dramatically over the past decades. The new anaesthesia machines allow the combination of oxygen and air as breathing gas, there are new inhalational agents (e. g. desflurane, xenon) as controllable as nitrous oxide and new i. v. agents. As a conclusion of these developments the Department of Anaesthesiology at the Universitat Erlangen-Nurnberg has decided to cease the traditional use of nitrous oxide.
Nitrous oxide
'Laughing gas'
Inhaled anaesthetics
Rats on nitrous oxide
Nitrous oxide inhalation
Nitrous oxide plus ethanol
Nitrous oxide and frostbite
Nitrous oxide and marijuana
Nitrous oxide: 'laughing gas'
Nitrous oxide: adverse effects
Nitrous oxide and the opioid receptors(?)
Beta-endorphin/nitrous oxide withdrawal
Nitrous oxide - subjective and rewarding effects
Whipped cream bulbs cause nitrous oxide myelopathy

and further reading

Future Opioids
BLTC Research
Utopian Surgery?
The Good Drug Guide
The Abolitionist Project
The Hedonistic Imperative
The Reproductive Revolution
Critique of Huxley's Brave New World