Oral midazolam premedication in
preadolescents and adolescents

Brosius KK, Bannister CF.
Department of Anesthesiology,
Emory University School of Medicine,
Children's Healthcare of Atlanta,
Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
Anesth Analg. 2002 Jan;94(1):31-6


We sought to determine the influence of preoperative oral midazolam on 1) sedation score, 2) measures of anesthetic emergence, 3) recovery times, and 4) bispectral index (BIS) measurements during sevoflurane/N(2)O anesthesia in adolescent patients. Fifty ASA I and II patients 10-18 yr of age were enrolled in a prospective double-blinded study. Patients were randomized to receive either 20 mg of midazolam (M group) or midazolam vehicle (P group) as premedication. Before the induction, sedation scores and BIS values were determined in all patients. After inhaled induction and intubation, expired sevoflurane was stabilized at 3% in 60% N(2)O and the corresponding BIS (BIS I) recorded. Upon completion of surgery, sevoflurane was stabilized at 0.5% and the BIS (BIS E) again recorded. Plasma midazolam levels were measured at the time of BIS I and BIS E. There were no significant differences between groups in awakening time, sevoflurane/N(2)O awakening concentrations, time to postanesthesia care unit discharge, or BIS I and BIS E measurements. Sedation scores and preinduction BIS values were significantly lower in Group M than in Group P, although only 40% of midazolam-treated patients exhibited detectable sedation, with marked interindividual variability in achieved plasma midazolam levels. Detectable preoperative sedation was predictive of delayed emergence. IMPLICATIONS: We demonstrated a measurable sedative effect of oral midazolam in adolescents which correlated with simultaneous bispectral index (BIS) measurement. Considering the overall group, midazolam premedication did not affect intraoperative BIS, emergence times, or recovery times compared with placebo controls. Detectable preoperative sedation, and not merely midazolam administration, was predictive of prolonged emergence.
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