Analysis of old surgical operation records of the Drs. Ishin Fuwa who graduated from Hanaoka School of Medicine
Yamauchi K, Fuwa H.
Nippon Ishigaku Zasshi. 1996 Mar;42(1):61-76.


Ninety-five surgical records prepared by Dr. Ishin Rensai Fuwa from 1826 to 1859, and by his son, Dr. Ishin Kyousai Fuwa, from 1860 to 1871, were analyzed. These two surgeons lived in Fuwaishiki Village in the Mino area and performed many surgical operations under general anesthesia more than a century ago. The former was one of the trainees of Dr. Seishu Hanaoka who had performed the first operation under general anesthesia by Mafutsusan in 1804. Forty-eight patients were from the Mino area, and thirty-one from the Owari area; the others were from the Ise, Mikawa and Oomi areas. Seventy-three of 95 operations were for breast cancer, four for neck tumor, four for facial tumor, three for cleft palate and so on. The ages of breast cancer patients ranged from 15 to 68 years (mean 44 years), and 27% of 73 patients had an operation for breast cancer with removal of axillary nodes. Even at that time, informed consent for surgery seemed to have been obtained when a cancer was at the advanced stage and recurrence was suspected. These records clarify the medical situation, especially with regard to surgery, in one district of the Mino area at the end of the Edo era before Western medicine had been introduced to Japan.
"Mayaku Ko"
Goda Daisuke
Seishu Hanaoka
Recipe for the first general anaesthetic?
Goda Daisuke and "Komo Ijutsu Monsho"
First use of anaesthetics in different countries
Name list of Hanaoka's breast cancer patients
Anaesthesia pioneer Seishu Hanaoka's family tree
Seishu Hanaoka and Shutei Nakagawa's "Mayaku-ko"
Death dates of Hanaoka's patients with breast cancer
New studies on Seishu Hanaoka's "Nyugan Ckiken Roku"
Seishu Hanaoka and breast cancer surgery under general anaesthesia

and further reading
Future Opioids
BLTC Research
Utopian Surgery?
The Good Drug Guide
The Abolitionist Project
The Hedonistic Imperative
The Reproductive Revolution
Critique of Huxley's Brave New World