Uncircumcision: a historical review of preputial restoration
Schultheiss D, Truss MC,
Stief CG, Jonas U.
Department of Urology,
Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Germany.
Plast Reconstr Surg. 1998 Jun;101(7):1990-8


Throughout history, demands for restoration of the prepuce after circumcision were most commonly related to the political or religious persecution of the Jewish people. The first evidence for such a procedure is mentioned in the Bible: Under the reign of Antiochus IV (168 BC) Hellenistic ideals, such as public nakedness at athletic games or in public baths, emerged in Judea and forced Jews to stretch their shortened foreskins with a special weight, the Pondus Judaeus, to cover the glans (I. Maccabees 1). Similar efforts are reported in the Talmud during the time of Hadrian (132 AD). Celsius (25 BC-50 AD) was the first to give a detailed description of two surgical techniques for uncircumcision in his De medicina libri octo. Subsequent works, for example by Galen (131-200 AD) and Paulus Aeginata in the seventh century, only contained a repetition of these methods without presenting any new aspects. Ambroise Pare gave a new impetus in the sixteenth century, suggesting the insertion of a catheter into the distal urethra to guarantee free passage of urine during postoperative healing. In this past century, Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach was the first to dedicate a whole chapter to the problem of "posthioplastice" in a modern textbook of plastic surgery. Almost no written documents exist of uncircumcision during the Nazi era; nevertheless, surgical treatment seemed to be widespread as every circumcised man was in danger of being denounced as a Jew. Personal reports of patients and doctors performing surgical restoration of the prepuce are presented. Nowadays, reports on surgical foreskin restoration are still rare and alternative methods of nonsurgical skin-expansion have become more common. Several organizations were founded in America against routine infant circumcision and give advice to foreskin restoration seekers.
Genital mutilation
Adult circumcision
Neonatal circumcision
Obstetric anaesthesia
Molecular mechanisms
Inhalational techniques
A thalamocortical switch?
Anaesthesia and anaesthetics
Nitrous oxide: adverse effects
Anaesthesia: rivalries and discoveries
Consciousness, anaesthesia and anaesthetics

and further reading

Future Opioids
BLTC Research
Utopian Surgery?
The Good Drug Guide
The Abolitionist Project
The Hedonistic Imperative
The Reproductive Revolution
Critique of Huxley's Brave New World