History and development of trauma
care in the United States

Trunkey DD.
Department of Surgery,
Oregon Health Sciences University,
Portland 97201-3098, USA.
Clin Orthop. 2000 May;(374):36-46


Until recently the development of systems for trauma care in the United States has been inextricably linked to wars. During the Revolutionary War trauma care was based on European trauma principles particularly those espoused by the Hunter brothers. Surgical procedures were limited mostly to soft tissue injuries and amputations. The American Civil War was remarkable because of the contributions that were made to the development of systems for trauma care. The shear magnitude of casualties required extensive infrastructure to support the surgeons at the battlefield and to care for the wounded. For the first time in an armed conflict, anaesthetics were used on a routine basis. Despite these major contributions, hospital gangrene was a terrible problem and was the cause of many mortalities. World War I and World War II were noteworthy because of the contributions made by surgeons in the use of blood. One of the major lessons of World War II was the reemphasis of how frequently lessons have to be relearned regarding the treatment and care of wounds. Between the Korean Conflict and the Vietnam War the discovery was made of the tremendous fluid shifts into the cell after severe hemorrhagic shock. As a consequence, the treatment of patients with shock was altered during the Vietnam Conflict, which resulted in better outcomes and less renal failure. The first trauma centers for civilians were started in the United States in 1966. Since 1988 the number of states with mature trauma systems has expanded from two to 35. During the same period, many studies have documented the efficacy of trauma systems in reducing unnecessary mortality and disability.
Adverse effects
Obstetric anaesthesia
Molecular mechanisms
Inhalational techniques
Contemporary anaesthesia
Anaesthesia and anaesthetics
Anaesthesia: rivalries and discoveries
Consciousness, anaesthesia and anaesthetics
First use of anaesthetics in different countries

and further reading

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Utopian Surgery?
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The Abolitionist Project
The Hedonistic Imperative
The Reproductive Revolution
Critique of Huxley's Brave New World